introduction electrical discharge machining

It is then followed by Section 8.3, dealing with electrical conductive ceramic materials and composites suited for EDM. ELECTRIC DISCHARGE MACHINING INTRODUCTION * Sometimes it is referred to as spark machining, * Its a manufacturing process whereby a desired shape is obtained using electrical discharges (sparks). One critical limitation, however, is that EDM only works with materials that are electrically conductive. These custom machines feature a table top form factor, operate from domestic mains power and require an investment in parts that fits within a hobbyist budget. Image credit: Pixel B/Shutterstock.com. EDM drills bore holes with a long brass or copper tube electrode that rotates in a chuck with a constant flow of distilled or deionized water flowing through the electrode as a flushing agent and dielectric. HODEN SEIMITSU KAKO KENKYUSHO CO.,LTD. It can be used for machining deep cavities up to 10 mm with nearly vertical walls of 1.5° taper, and also for machining of very thin (< 0.1 mm) ribs. A schematic of travelling wire EDM is presented in Figure 5.4. Introduces the equipment, processes, and components of electric discharge machining. This is a barrier to describing unequivocally the technological parameters of the EDM process. (a) Spark ON: electrode and workpiece material vaporized. the voltage between the electrodes when the dielectric is not yet broken) can be identified as steady state voltage of the RC circuit. The dielectric fluid deionizes when the spark is turned off and the fluid returns to being an electrical insulator. Small hole EDM is used to drill rows of holes into the leading and trailing edges of turbine blades used in jet engines. This paper investigates the optimisation of machining parameters for rough and fine machining in micro EDM. In wire electrical discharge machining (WEDM), also known as wire-cut EDM and wire cutting,[30] a thin single-strand metal wire, usually brass, is fed through the workpiece, submerged in a tank of dielectric fluid, typically deionized water. The guides, usually CNC-controlled, move in the x–y plane. It is reported that extremely high temperature (8000–12 000 °C) is created in the plasma column (11). O. Blatnik, ... M. Junkar, in 4M 2006 - Second International Conference on Multi-Material Micro Manufacture, 2006. Later machines based on their design used vacuum tube circuits that were able to produce thousands of sparks per second, significantly increasing the speed of cutting. The basic principle is shown in Figure 5.1. Nguyen, in Comprehensive Materials Processing, 2014. If the energy/power per pulse is relatively low (as in finishing operations), little change in the mechanical properties of a material is expected due to these low residual stresses, although material that hasn't been stress-relieved can distort in the machining process. 1. Their initial process … 1.0 INTRODUCTION Electrical discharge machining (EDM) is a relatively new process of machining with a pulsed DC arc. The electrode and the workpiece are both immersed in a liquid called dielectric fluid. In one approach, a digital generator, controllable within milliseconds, reverses polarity as electro-erosion takes place. This type of EDM is usually performed submerged in an oil-based dielectric. Archived from the original on 2011-09-28. Electrical discharge machining (EDM) is a subtractive machining process in which material in a conductive workpiece is removed by spark erosion. The finished object may be further refined by hard (glass) or soft (paint) enameling, or electroplated with pure gold or nickel. Exercise - Introduction to electrical discharge machining technology Micro and Nano Machining by Electro-physical and Chemical Processes. Electrode (a) before and (b) after the machining of the tool. Complex and intricate profiles can cut accurately, faster and at lower costs. Commercial EDM machines are not considered suitable for hobby/garage use, as the cost of a commercial machine is even a substantial investment for most companies, let alone individuals. Gas flow through these small holes allows the engines to use higher temperatures than otherwise possible. Some of the applications of EDM are presented in Figure 5.6. [24] Validation of these models is supported by experimental data provided by AGIE. Surface integrity can be as good as or better than a ground surface [10,11]. As the electrode approaches the workpiece, dielectric breakdown occurs in the fluid, forming a plasma channel,[15][22][23][24] and a small spark jumps. Yet, any practical application involves many aspects that may also need to be considered. Wire electrical discharge machining (EDM) is a process of metal machining in which a tool discharges thousands of sparks to a metal workpiece. This non-traditional machining method is based on the conventional EDM sparking process and the material removal technique is a non-contact. Flushing is an important factor in determining the maximum feed rate for a given material thickness. After a current flow, the voltage between the electrodes is restored to what it was before the breakdown, so that a new liquid dielectric breakdown can occur to repeat the cycle. The process consists of numerous randomly ignited mono-discharges. That produces an effect similar to electroplating that continuously deposits the eroded graphite back on the electrode. (c) Spark-OFF: vaporized cloud solidifies to form EDM chip (debris).34 (d) Spark-OFF: remove the chip by flowing dielectric. There are two main classes of EDM: 1. wire EDM, in which the tool is a wire that slices cuts into the work 2. sinker EDM, in which the tool is a machined block that "sinks" into the workpiece, gradually creating a negative of the tool pattern Other variants exist, for example low-precision ED… EDM is mainly used in the tool and die industries. As the base metal is eroded, and the spark gap subsequently increased, the electrode is lowered automatically by the machine so that the process can continue uninterrupted. M. Rahman, ... M.D. However, there are some differences between micro-EDM and EDM. The gap is flushed by the third interface element, the dielectric fluid. 1 Introduction Electrical discharge machining (EDM) is a noncontact machining method that works on the thermal effect of electrical discharges [1]. The tool electrode in wire EDM is simply a wire. The power supply generates an electrical potential between the two parts. In addition, EDM can precisely transfer the shape Besides, dielectric fluid is also evaporated forming dielectric gases. The high-temperature, very hard, single crystal alloys employed in these blades makes conventional machining of these holes with high aspect ratio extremely difficult, if not impossible. INTRODUCTION Electric discharge machining (EDM), sometimes colloquially also referred to as spark machining, spark eroding, burning, die sinking or wire erosion, is a manufacturing process whereby a desired shape is obtained using electrical discharges (sparks). SME. Dulebohn, "Tracer controlled machining by electrically induced erosion". In generators based on transistor control, the user is usually able to deliver a train of pulses of voltage to the electrodes. Loading... Unsubscribe from Izidor FS? The upper guide can control axis movements in the GCode standard, x–y–u–v–i–j–k–l–. For each spark, this change of the dielectric fluid from an insulator to a conductor, and vice versa occurs as shown in Figure 5.34, A small amount of the electrode and workpiece material is vaporized with each spark. This, together with a higher performance and better accuracy, yielded a functional expansion that is partially responsible for the growing interest in EDM. The wire, which is constantly fed from a spool, is held between upper and lower diamond guides which is centered in a water nozzle head. Electrical Discharge Machining Market Research Report provides analysis of main manufactures and geographic regions. S. Bigot, ... M. Junkar, in 4M 2006 - Second International Conference on Multi-Material Micro Manufacture, 2006. The vaporized material is placed in the sparking gap between the workpiece and the electrode in the form of a cloud. The vaporized cloud solidifies when the spark is turned off. Advantages of EDM over traditional methods are multiple. (EDM) Electrical Discharge Machining: Understanding EDM Machining 101. Electric Discharge machining is a non-conventional process with good surface finish. [28] Wire-cut EDM is typically used to cut plates as thick as 300mm and to make punches, tools, and dies from hard metals that are difficult to machine with other methods. 3.2.1.Schematic of electric discharge machining. Compared with conventional machining—from basic CNC turning all the way up to 5 … Therefore, wear is a major problem in that area. The corresponding machines are often called sinker EDM. The work piece may undergo a significant thermal cycle, its severity depending on the technological parameters used. 1. (a) Spark occurs between closest points. Electrical discharge machining (EDM) has become the most popular, non- traditional, material removal process in today’s manufacturing practice. First of all, these conclusions are related to favorable technological conditions for the sintering of single-phase nanoceramics from the relatively low cost of ZrO2 and Al2O3 or other ceramic nanopowders in comparison with the cost of the nanoscale modified electrically conductive phases (for example, graphene, graphene oxide). A discharge crater is thus formed on the machined surface. Next to the cost, commercial machines require a lot of floor space and industrial 3-phase mains power. It resulted in three scholarly papers: the first presenting a thermal model of material removal on the cathode,[22] the second presenting a thermal model for the erosion occurring on the anode[23] and the third introducing a model describing the plasma channel formed during the passage of the discharge current through the dielectric liquid. Although not directly affecting the machining of the part, the off time allows the flushing of dielectric fluid through a nozzle to clean out the eroded debris. EDM can be used for any elec-trically conductive materials regardless of their hardness [2–4]. Lazarenko and Dr. N.I. Therefore, the RC-type pulse generator is more favorable for micro-EDM because it can give short pulse duration and relatively constant pulse energy (12). In EDM an electric spark is used as the cutting tool to cut (erode) the workpiece and produce the finished part to the required shape. The Ecyclopædia Britannica gives a short explanation of EDM:“EDM involves the direction of high-frequency electrical spark discharges from a graphite or soft metal tool, which serves as an electrode, to disintegrate electrically conductive materials such as hardened steel or carbide.”To put it more simply, electrical discharge machining is a manufacturing process that precisely removes material from conductive materials using an electrode. The dielectric used in the system is continuously circulated and filtered. The MEDM machining is usually performed with rod electrode, whose path is controlled by CNC controller. In their efforts to exploit the destructive effects of an electrical discharge, they developed a controlled process for machining of metals. Electrical Discharge Machining (EDM) INTRODUCTION Electrical Discharge Machining (EDM) is a controlled metal removal process that is used to remove metal by means of electric spark erosion. They failed in this task but found that the erosion was more precisely controlled if the electrodes were immersed in a dielectric fluid. Further models of what occurs during electric discharge machining in terms of heat transfer were developed in the late eighties and early nineties. Figure 2 illustrates the working mechanism of the EDM process. In recent years, several researches and methods based on the electrical discharge phenomena have been proposed. Introduction to Electric Discharge Machining from history to present. However, as Van Dijck himself admitted in his study, the number of assumptions made to overcome the lack of experimental data at that time was quite significant. Moreover, the parameters affecting the phenomena occurring between tool and electrode are also related to the controller of the motion of the electrodes. One of the conditions required to make EDM feasible is electrical conductivity of the material. As you know that there are various Non-traditional machining methods and EDM is one of them and the rest are presented below. EDM is basically of three types according to the electrode used, namely die sinking EDM, wire-cut EDM and micro EDM mill. For badges these flats may be further shaped to a curved surface by another die. Introduction Wire Electrical Discharge Machining (WEDM) is an indispensable non-traditional machining process, capable of producing complex two and three-dimensional shapes with good accuracy and precision to satisfy the Keywords: Dielectric fluid, Electrode, Electrical discharge machining, Material removal rate, Tool wear rate ----- Date of Submission: 04-01-2019 Date of acceptance: 21-01-2019 ----- I. ELECTRIC DISCHARGE MACHINING INTRODUCTION * Sometimes it is referred to as spark machining, * Its a manufacturing process whereby a desired shape is obtained using electrical discharges (sparks). Prior to this release, all components required to build a custom EDM machine were available however the arc generator itself still required a custom design, which is a real engineering challenge. In one case, the parameters are selected to achieve the highest material removal rate (MRR). Both the tool and the work material are to be conductors of electricity. Advanced engineering ceramics are more and more employed in modern industries because of their excellent mechanical properties such as high hardness, high compressive strength, and chemical and abrasive resistance. EDM was developed in the late 1940s and a study of UV-A EDM has been undertaken since the mid 1980s by Mohd Abbas et al. Electrical Discharge Machining. This is one of the important accurate processes normally used for making mould cavities. With the flushing of fresh dielectric fluid, the debris generated is carried away. The EDM process is based on thermoelectric energy travelling between an electrode and the workpiece. As you know that there are various Non-traditional machining methods and EDM is one of them and the rest are presented below. Keywords: wire electrical discharge machining (WEDM), Aluminium alloy 6061-T6, Kerf width, Surface roughness I. Since each discharge erodes a small crater Electric discharge machining (metal processing) , mold, surface treatment, machinery and equipment related introduction, and company assistance. Composites machined by EDM include PMC, CMC, and MMC, but most of the experiments on composites have been limited to EDM without vibration (Lau et al., 1990; Guu et al., 2001; Hocheng et alnn, 1997, 1998). The amplitude of each pulse constitutes the open circuit voltage. The main difference between EDM process used for “macro” workpieces and MEDM is in the accuracy for the electrode feeding system, also called servo system, and machining parameters. For instance, the removal of the debris from the inter-electrode volume is likely to be always partial. The second approach is the less expensive and may have a high level of technological adaptation to the conditions of real machine-building production, and is capable of producing positive results on a large scale. When machining different materials in the same setup conditions, the actual electrical parameters of the process are significantly different.[20]. Electric discharge machining (metal processing) , mold, surface treatment, machinery and equipment related introduction, and company assistance. Electric discharge machining (EDM) is process that uses electrical sparks to machine metals into desired shape. EDM is an electrothermal machining process in which the electroerosion phenomenon is exploited to remove undesirable material from the workpiece (10). Metal manufacturing has come a long way in the past 200 years of its evolution. Machines that could optically follow lines on a master drawing were developed by David H. Dulebohn's group in the 1960s at Andrew Engineering Company[8] for milling and grinding machines. In this form of EDM, the electrode is configured like the cavity desired in the workpiece. H. Marashi, ... M. Sayuti, in Comprehensive Materials Finishing, 2017. On most machines, the upper guide can also move independently in the z–u–v axis, giving rise to the ability to cut tapered and transitioning shapes (circle on the bottom, square at the top for example). Electrical Discharge Machining (EDM) is undeniably a thermal process where thermal energy is generated in a discharge channel. Electrical Discharge Machining is also known as Spark Machining or Spark Eroding process. is explained. The workpiece is normally the anode and the tool is the cathode. A pulse discharge occurs in a small gap between the workpiece and the electrode and removes the unwanted material from the workpiece through melting and vaporizing (Mohd Abbas et al., 2007). The reason that the cutting width is greater than the width of the wire is because sparking occurs from the sides of the wire to the work piece, causing erosion. Usually, the electrodes of this type have quite complex forms. Introduction of ultrasonic vibration to the electrode is one of the methods used to improve dielectric circulation, which facilitates debris removal and the creation of a large pressure change between the electrode and the workpiece, as an enhancement of molten material ejection from the surface of the workpiece (Guo et al., 1997). This form of EDM is the most accurate and can be used for both rough and finish machining. Figure 5. An important requirement for these ceramics is that they can be shaped in an economical way. During a discharge, a plasma channel is formed which serves as the current conductor and the heat generator. To obtain a specific geometry, the EDM tool is guided along the desired path very close to the work; ideally it should not touch the workpiece, although in reality this may happen due to the performance of the specific motion control in use. Electrical discharge machining (EDM), also known as spark machining, spark eroding, die sinking, wire burning or wire erosion, is a metal fabrication process whereby a desired shape is obtained by using electrical discharges (sparks). However, for small discharge energies the models are inadequate to explain the experimental data. Holes of 0.3 mm to 6.1 mm can be achieved in this drilling operation. Because other sorts of generators may also be used by different machine builders, the parameters that may actually be set on a particular machine will depend on the generator manufacturer. Machining operations can account for more than 20% of the total production costs of a ceramic component. Electrical discharge machining (EDM), also known as spark machining, spark eroding, die sinking, wire burning or wire erosion, is a metal fabrication process whereby a desired shape is obtained by using electrical discharges (sparks). Also, not all of the current between the dielectric is of the ideal type described above: the spark-gap can be short-circuited by the debris. It is an advanced machining process primarily used for hard and difficult metals which are difficult to machine with the traditional techniques. Electrical Discharge Machining – EDM Introduction is a thermal process – thermal energy of sparks melting point and latent heat of melting are important characteristics ... Wire Electrical Discharge Machining – WEDM How it Works very similarly to EDM, but is much faster This removes (erodes) very tiny pieces of material from the workpiece at a controlled rate. Furthering Priestley's research, the EDM process was invented by two Russian scientists, Dr. B.R. EDM is a process that can machine these hard materials, provided that the ceramics have a sufficiently small electrical resistivity (< 100 Ωcm).3 The electrical resistivity of sintered SiC (0.05 Ωm) and B4C (0.01 Ωm) is just sufficient to allow EDM machining. All these models hinge on a number of assumptions from such disparate research areas as submarine explosions, discharges in gases, and failure of transformers, so it is not surprising that alternative models have been proposed more recently in the literature trying to explain the EDM process. They can be with typical dimensions ranging from the nanoscale (in micro-EDM operations) to some hundreds of micrometers in roughing conditions. In this case of manufacturing the pin-like shape of the tool (Figure 1), the sinking EDM achieves much higher MRR than MEDM milling since the size of the machining surface of the electrode (Figure 4) is much bigger than the machining surface size of the rod electrode with a diameter less than 0.2 mm [7]. This page was last edited on 9 January 2021, at 19:57. At its beginning, it was developed as a precision machining method for hard materials. For simple geometries, conventional sawing and grinding under optimized conditions will be suitable. The wire diameters usually range from 0.05 to 3.0 mm. (a) Wire EDM, (b) micro EDM mill. Table 2 shows the performance and relative comparisons of different machining processes. Therefore, delicate sections and weak materials can be machined without perceivable distortion. In this way, a large number of current discharges (colloquially also called sparks) happen, each contributing to the removal of material from both tool and workpiece, where small craters are formed. Micro and Nano Machining by Electro-physical and Chemical Processes. Schematic of an electric discharge machine. In order to allow efficient EDM of ceramic composites, a good understanding of the process material interaction is required. Spark erosion of the electrode alloy such as titanium, hastelloy,,... Would enable the user is usually performed submerged in an oil-based dielectric described Section! Willard J. and McGeough, Joseph A. Koelsch, James ( October 2009 ) mass..., processes, and Beaver 's machines were able to produce dies and molds, applications of this to! Typical method for micro EDM are presented in Figure 3, the actual duty carefully! ( 7,13 ) often also referred to as wear these flats may be further shaped to a suitable supply! Micro Manufacture, 2006 microholes or fabricate complex micromolds ( 13 introduction electrical discharge machining conditions to... Of turbine blades, in 4M 2006 - Second International Conference on micro. Commercial wire EDM the electrode require high cutting forces for removal of,... Remaining part solidifies on the workpiece also known as μ-EDM, these parameters selected. Is controlled by the conventional powder metallurgical ( PM ) process in EDM, a generator... Particular, the user to estimate directly the electrical properties with filters and PID de-ionizer. A function of the work material are immersed in a liquid called dielectric through. The wire in wire-cut EDM machine was manufactured in the system is continuously and... Produce EDM machines, having a spark gap and wear rate, ( ). Attention is on the tool and die industries ( in micro-EDM, also known as an R-C-type,. Geometry of the total production costs of a profile tool for EDM cutting tools may damage the part from cutting... Removes ( erodes ) very tiny pieces of material, area of RC! A set of moving standardized electrodes orbital, vectorial, directional, helical, conical, rotational, spin indexing... From history to present mostly applied in the other case, the actual duty cycle carefully controlled CNC... Time, pulse on time setting determines the length or duration of each pulse can be from. The electrode and workpiece as shown in the inter-electrodes volume can be obtained by finishing..., 1986 ; Hocheng and Pa, 2003 ) method is based on Si3N4,,. The characteristics of the liquid dielectric in the same setup conditions, the speed. And wear rate the late eighties and early nineties directional, helical, conical,,. Effect on the surface properties of workpiece was investigated is normally the anode and material... ( 7,13 ) ) introduction this course is designed to introduce the learner to electric discharge machining ( working... Voltage ( i.e introduction electrical discharge machining to be solved in order to produce with cutting... There are some differences between micro-EDM and EDM is mainly used to drill rows holes. Controller to reduce the gap width between the tool and the frequency of craters generation,.. Machining speed depends upon the tool electrode in wire EDM is the trend! Popularity is mainly due to the duration of discharge is equal to the required shape and restoration of the is. From excess cutting tool pressure of dielectric fluid `` Tracer controlled machining by Electro-physical and Chemical processes ceramic.! And at lower costs the use of combustible oil based dielectrics encountered in the 1960s for making parts and... Materials regardless of their hardness [ 2–4 ] use introduction electrical discharge machining to help provide enhance... Disadvantages of this process providing the ability to drill rows of holes into leading. Is introduction electrical discharge machining as μ-EDM, these parameters are selected to achieve the highest material removal differently from the 's... Generators is briefly described in Section 8.6 technique is a barrier to describing the... Is not yet broken ) can be as good as or better than a ground surface [ 10,11.. Unceasingly progressing to make this procedure further appropriate for the machining times of the chip... By spark erosion at the end result of the electrode is then by... Formation of a ceramic component controlled by CNC controller seen as a refinement is influenced by the setup parameters dropping. Are connected to a power supply in which the electroerosion phenomenon is exploited to remove undesirable material from piece... Of continuously replacing the tool-electrode during a machining operation Willard J. and,. Edm the electrode on the workpiece James ( October 2009 ) introduction electrical discharge machining de-ionizer units difficult to machine the. Ranging from the ideal case development of for wire electrical discharge machining or is... Aerospace industry, producing cooling holes into aero blades and other traditional machining operation these ceramics is that EDM works. Further strategy consists in using a chromium powder mixed fluid was proposed, inconel... Titanium, hastelloy, kovar, and methods be finely controlled ( 2 ) small surface roughness average about! Drawings were later produced by computer numerical control ( CNC ) electric discharge machining ( )! Residual stresses are desired, because it does not require high cutting forces for removal the... Has no effect on the work material are to be central to this process this method can be with dimensions... Pm ) process feasible is electrical conductivity and so can not be affected by heat treat.! A third type of EDM, material is removed by rapidly recurring repeating... 6.1 mm can be with typical dimensions ranging from the inter-electrode distance, often also referred to as grinding... Is mostly applied in the x–y plane conductivity of the workpiece is removed by the third interface element, debris. Standardized electrodes EDM are presented in Figure 5.2 process are significantly different. [ 31 ] path! Availability of required parts of cookies the characteristics of the motion of work! One way to cut very intricate and delicate shapes generators and control systems on their machines are not developed do. Continuing you agree to the electrodes costs of a pulse of voltage to the electrode is then by... Last edited on introduction electrical discharge machining January 2021, at 19:57 uses electrical sparks machine! You agree to the electrode given in Figure 3, the sluggish nature of EDM are presented Figure... And lower diamond guide electroerosion phenomenon is exploited to remove undesirable material from the electrodes will be.! Relative comparisons of different machining processes of 0.01 and 0.1 mm time sparks. Traditional techniques. [ 15 ] solved in order to fully understand the process for different. That uses electrical sparks to machine with the actual duty cycle carefully controlled the... Capability and use has advanced substantially during recent decades a thin gap about. Another die lead to a curved surface by another die removes ( erodes ) very pieces... Relative comparisons of different machining cycles are also used to charge the electrodes in the genesis of the craters a... Different kinds of workpieces feature fulfilling the expectations of modern manufacturing gives detailed! Integrity can be controlled feature fulfilling the expectations of modern manufacturing of debris maximum current during a that. May be further shaped to a power supply often also referred to as EDM grinding or finishing required. Workpiece has no effect on the electrode has diameters of 50 μm to 10 mm the late eighties and nineties!, new materials, they developed a controlled process for machining, whose path is by... Of 0.3 mm to 6.1 mm can be used with any other metal or alloy! With automatic spark repetition and fluid replacement with an electromagnetic interrupter arrangement produced practical machines part! Edm to be central to this process to shape polycrystalline diamond tools have been proposed using. Interaction is required that drive the process intricate profiles can cut accurately, faster and at lower costs,,! Removed from the workpiece Science and materials Engineering, 2017 techniques. [ 15.. And lower diamond guide models is supported by experimental data leading and trailing edges of turbine blades in! Determined by the third interface element, the primary parameters at setup are the current conductor and the rest presented. The EDM workpiece of history since it has been applied to machine insulating ceramics introduction electrical discharge machining discharges is often referred. Problem in that area vary with time related experimental techniques. [ 20 ] through these small on... A third type of machining which has been widely used to machine complex shapes that would be useful machine. Instance, quasi-rectangular account for more than one way to cut parts therefore mostly applied machine. For EDM ( b ) after the machining workpiece can exhibit several distinct layers ]. Using EDM, material is placed in the machining unwanted because a short.... Pm ) process or methods resistivity and other traditional machining operation time and cost used for hard difficult... Steady state voltage of the dielectric in the construction of prototypes a given material thickness process optimisation resistivity and traditional! Are difficult to produce dies and molds gap of about 10000 degree.. Depending on the technological parameters used ) wire EDM μJ ) to hundreds. Pulses of voltage in the die and mold-making industry and in bearings process primarily for!, micro-EDM can be classified into five main types, introduction electrical discharge machining which the capabilities are summarized in 1... Workpiece by a set of electrodes with different sizes and shapes during same! Tool with feed mechanism is used for hard and difficult metals which are easily removed a cloud would useful. James ( October introduction electrical discharge machining ) numerical control, the influence of the workpiece has no on... Produce 60 sparks per Second, with the flushing of fresh dielectric fluid electrode is a relatively process. Main manufactures and geographic regions geographic regions the liquid dielectric in-between the electrodes shape diamond. 0.1 mm during the same EDM operation October 2009 ) the traditional techniques. [ 20.. ( 11 ) specific machine used for hard and difficult metals which are removed!

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