All these printed texts are compiled or edited texts, formed on the basis of the informed (or not-so-well-informed) opinions of fallible editors. The “standard” text or texts today are the Nestle or Nestle-Aland text (1st edition, 1898; 27th edition, 1993) and/or the various editions of The Greek New Testament published by the United Bible Societies (1st edition, 1966; 4th edition, 1993). The title page states: “a modern-language translation of the Westcott-Hort Greek Text.”. Daniel Wallace, "Some Second Thoughts on the Majority Text," Bibliotheca Sacra, July-September, 1989, p. 276. Age of manuscripts is probably the most objective factor in the process of textual criticism. Their objectivity, scholarship and doctrine are all at best "suspect." Yeah they're older, but does that mean they're better? And, frankly, just as there are times when we must honestly say, "I simply do not know for certain what this Bible verse or passage means," there will be (and are) places in the Greek New Testament where the evidence is not clear cut, (21) and the arguments of the various schools of thought do not distinctly favor one reading over another. This is the Greek New Testament edited by B. F. Westcott and F. J. The Greek text followed by the Revisers was compiled and published in 1882 in an edition with the KJV and ERV in parallel columns (12). “The Westcott and Hort Text changes the Textus Receptus in over 5,600 places. IOW, specifically how is the OP deficient? Robertus Stephanus (4 editions: 1546, 1549, 1550, 1551), Theodore de Beza (9 editions between 1565 and 1604), and the Elzevirs (3 editions: 1624,1633, 1641). See the listing of papyrus manuscripts in Bruce M. Metzger, The Text of the New Testament (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1968. Though the Westcott-Hort text was the "standard" critical text for a generation or two, it is no longer considered such by anyone, and has not been for many years. 24. Westcott and Hort distinguished four text types in their studies. What is perhaps the strongest argument in favor of the Westcott-Hort text vis-a-vis the textus receptus, is the fact that it has firm support from the oldest extant Greek manuscripts, plus the earliest of the versions or translations, as well as the early Christian writers of the 2nd through 4th centuries. A. Hort and first published in 1881, with numerous reprints in the century since. Alle anderen bekannten deutschen Bibeln übersetzen aus Nestle Aland, einer Textform des Neuen Testaments, welche auf neueren Erkenntnissen (Funden) beruht, und daher ein wissenschaftlicherer. 2 The New Testament of Our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ (Oxford: University Press, 1882). 5 New World Translation of the Christian Greek Scriptures (Brooklyn: Watchtower Bible and Tract Society of Pennsylvania, 1969. The last two editions of each of these sport an identical text, a new "received text," so to speak. 27th edition), “Introduction,” p. 44. Metzger characterizes about three-fourths of these manuscripts as Alexandrian, with the rest being called Western or mixed in text; none carries a Byzantine-type text. editions differ widely among themselves — the Complutensian text — the first printed Greek New Testament — differing from the first Elzevir edition in 2,777 places, by Scrivener's count (A Plain Introduction to the Criticism of the New Testament, first edition, p. 293), and in more than 2,300 from Stephanus' 1550 edition (p. 300); Stephanus' 1550 edition in turn differs from the Elzevir 1633 edition (these two have long been considered the standard textus receptus editions) in 286 places (p.304). It is true that the Westcott-Hort text and the English Revised New Testament of 1881 are rather similar to each other, but they are not identical. Westcott and Hort Vs. Textus Receptus: Which Is Superior (Englisch) Gebundene Ausgabe 4,4 von 5 Sternen 6 Sternebewertungen. Returning to the specific texts, Westcott-Hort vs. the textus receptus: in truth, both texts necessarily fall short of presenting the true original. The two most famous attempts at restoring the original text of the New Testament are the Textus Receptus, dating from the Reformation and post-Reformation era, and the Greek text of B. F. Westcott and F. J. J. L. Dagg, A Manual of Theology (Harrisonburg, Va.: Gano, 1982 reprint of 1857 edition), pp.24, 25. In fact, to make a selection on such a basis is much beside the point. 9. 3. F. H. A. Scrivener, The New Testament in Greek (Cambridge: University Press, 1949), pp. Sorry. (6) No edition of the Greek New Testament agreeing precisely with the text followed by the KJV translators was in existence until 1881 when F. H. A. Scrivener produced such an edition (though even it differs from the King James Version in a very few places, e.g. The fact that all textus receptus editions of Stephanus, Beza, et al. Greek manuscript p72 in 1 Peter 1:2 alone of all witnesses deletes the word "and" between "God" and "Jesus," leaving the two nouns standing in apposition, and providing in this manuscript alone another proof-text of the Deity of Christ. (14), None of the major modern English Bible translations made since World War II used the Westcott-Hort text as its base. 7 See Harry A. Sturz, The Byzantine Text-Type & New Testament Textual Crticism (Nashville: Nelson, 1984) for an extended treatment of these Byzantine readings in the papyri and other early manuscripts. Though the terms textus receptus and majority text are frequently used as though they were synonymous, they by no means mean the same thing. Westcott und Hort hatten ein Problem. (22). Second edition), pp.247-256. This reading is not supported by any known Greek manuscript of John's Gospel. Because the word m As a result, the surviving manuscript copies of the New Testament differ among themselves in numerous details. Years ago in my youth, I was KJVO, but then I began to see a lot of misrepresentations in the KJO writings (I do not think all of it was intentional. It must not be! I did that myself). The Majority Text vs. Numerous other unique or extremely rare readings in the textus receptus editions could be referenced. 1 See the page notes in The Englishman’s Greek New Testament (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1970. There is a real challenge in conversing with someone who is heavily involved in the KJO position. Kurt Aland, et al., editors, The Greek New Testament (London: United Bible Societies, 1966), preface, p. 5. Obviously, those readings in the textus receptus which are without any Greek manuscript support cannot possibly be original. (2) "Which Greek text most closely corresponds to the original New Testament?" [The infidelity of Westcott and Hort is well documented in this author's work entitled Many think that by questioning the KJO position that they are questioning the Bible itself and thus questioning God and therefore they would not want to compromise by even reading Kutilek. Der Textus Receptus war der griechische Text der protestantischen Kirche und das seit der Reformation. With a general uniformity, these early manuscripts have supported the Alexandrian text-type which the Westcott-Hort text presents.6 It is true that these papyrus manuscripts occasionally contain Byzantine-type readings, but none of them could in any way be legitimately described as being regularly Byzantine in text.7 The agreement of some of the papyri with Vaticanus, especially p75 of the early third century, has been quite remarkable. (19). Yet the providence which has preserved the divine oracles, has been special and remarkable....The consequence is, that, although the various readings found in the existing manuscripts, are numerous, we are able, in every case, to determine the correct reading, so far as is necessary for the establishment of our faith, or the direction of our practice in every important particular. (13) The UBS editors used the Westcott-Hort text as their starting point and departed from it as their evaluation of manuscript evidence required. Revised edition), p.232. In Luke 2:41, in a few Old Latin manuscripts a substitution is made for the words "his parents," with these few manuscripts reading instead "Joseph and Mary," and thereby avoiding even the hint of a suspicion that Joseph was the father of Jesus (see a similar variation in Luke 2:33). Scribes and printers made both accidental (usually) and deliberate (occasionally) changes in the Greek text as they copied it. (IBRI Research Reports Book 45) (English Edition) eBook: Douglas K. Kutilek: Amazon.de: Kindle-Shop For example in 196… Hey! All known Greek manuscripts here read "tree of life" instead of "book of life" as in the textus receptus. Textus Receptus vs. Nestle Aland. One of these is the reading "book of life" in Revelation 22:19. The final conclusion here is simple, Westcott and Hort had some missteps spiritually as young men, they were not perfect as to their beliefs as young men, and they are under attack because they were the producers of the text that undermined the Textus Receptus that had been worshipped for centuries. Together, they produced The New Testament in the Original Greek, one of the earliest examples of modern textual criticism.Since its publication in 1881, Westcott and Hort’s work has proved to be … The New Testament in the Original Greek (Cambridge: Macmillan and Co., 1881), vol. It is also called the ‘Westcott and Hort text’. Notice in the below verses that the KJV says "saved", while the ESV says "being saved" as also the below verses reveal. Tyler is a pastor in Olympia, WA and works in State government. I. 22. He wrote, This received text contains undoubtedly all the essential facts and doctrines intended to be set down by the inspired writers; for if it were corrected with the severest hand, by the light of the most divergent various readings found in any ancient MS. or version, not a single doctrine of Christianity, nor a single cardinal fact would be thereby expunged....If all the debated readings were surrendered by us, no fact or doctrine of Christianity would thereby be invalidated, and least of all would the doctrine of Christ's proper divinity be deprived of adequate scriptural support. Of the early versions, the Westcott-Hort text has strong support in the various Coptic versions of the third and later centuries, plus frequent support in the Old Latin versions and the oldest forms of the Syriac, in particular the Sinaitic and Curetonian manuscripts whose text form dates to the second or third century (though there are also strong Western elements in the Old Latin and the early Syriac). The majority of manuscripts and Westcott and Hort agree against the textus receptus in excluding Luke 17:36; Acts 8:37; and I John 5:7 from the New Testament, as well as concurring in numerous other readings (such as "tree of life" in Revelation 22:19). Metzger characterizes about three-fourths of these manuscripts as Alexandrian, with the rest being called Western or mixed in text; none carries a Byzantine-type text. For other articles by Douglas Kutilek, visit kjvonly.org. Even advocates and defenders of the supremacy of the Byzantine over the Alexandrian text agree in this assessment. It is probably the single most famous of the so-called critical texts, perhaps because of the scholarly eminence of its editors, perhaps because it was issued the same year as the English Revised Version which followed a text rather like the Westcott-Hort text. Such readings as this are also presumptively not original. Westcott and Hort Vs. Textus Receptus: Which Is Superior Hardcover – April 1, 1996 by Douglas Kutilek (Author) 4.4 out of 5 stars 7 ratings. However, in the rather voluminous popular literature on this issue, some writers have argued that one text or another is superior because it is perceived to contain more proof-texts of the Trinity, the Deity of Christ, or some other doctrine. The new Bible versions are not based on Erasmus' Textus Receptus. First, what is meant by the term "superior"? (9) In other words, the reading of the majority of Greek manuscripts differs from the textus receptus (Hodges and Farstad used an 1825 Oxford reprint of Stephanus' 1550 text for comparison purposes) in 1,838 places, and in many of these places, the text of Westcott and Hort agrees with the majority of manuscripts against the textus receptus. 23. In truth, all text families are doctrinally orthodox. The core message of the gospel isn’t compromised in any of these documents. The Westcott and Hort text is much simpler to define. The most notable version support for the Byzantine text is in the Peshitta Syriac and the fourth century Gothic version (though each of these versions has significant departures from the Byzantine text). A second-century date for the Peshitta used to be advocated, but study of the Biblical quotations in the writings of Syrian Fathers Aphraates and Ephraem has demonstrated that neither of these leaders used the Peshitta, and so it must date from after their time, i.e., to the late fourth century or after. Again and again we shall have occasion to point out (e.g., at page 107) that the Textus Receptus needs correction." Since their day, a good number of manuscripts as old and in some cases a century and more older than these two manuscripts have been discovered. (10). 11. While Karl Lachmann was the one to overthrow the Textus Receptus, it would be B. F. Westcott and F. J. : Interdisciplinary Biblical Research Institute, 1986), p. 3. Hort attacked the doctrine of substitution and the ESV and new versions coming from the Westcott and Hort text, so salvation is not a one time finished thing, rather salvation is a process and is not complete. Westcott and Hort were preceded in the late 1700s by Griesbach, and in the 1800s by Lachmann, Alford, Tregelles, and Tischendorf (and others), all of whose texts made numerous revisions in the textus receptus on the basis of manuscript evidence; these texts, especially the last three named, are very frequently in agreement with Westcott and Hort, against the textus receptus. 15. The Westcott and Hort text are two texts found in a trash can and they disagree with one another thousands of times. With a general uniformity, these early manuscripts have supported the Alexandrian text-type which the Westcott-Hort text presents. On the other hand, the Byzantine manuscripts, though very numerous, did not become the "majority" text until the ninth century, and though outnumbering Alexandrian manuscripts by more than 10:1, are also very much later in time, most being 1,000 years and more removed from the originals. E.g., at John 1:13 in one Latin manuscript and some Syriac manuscripts, the "who was born," etc., is singular, and can be interpreted as a reference to Christ, and the virgin birth. 27th edition), "Introduction," p. 44. Reprinted with permission from As I See It, which is available free by writing to the editor at email@example.com. Neither Erasmus nor Westcott and Hort (nor, need we say, any other text editor or group of editors) is omniscient or perfect in reasoning and judgment. Jahrhunderts zu finden ist und sich in der Folge im Westen für lange Zeit durchgesetzt hat. The last two editions of each of these sport an identical text, a new “received text,” so to speak. The Textus Receptus. A second-century date for the Peshitta used to be advocated, but study of the Biblical quotations in the writings of Syrian Fathers Aphraates and Ephraem has demonstrated that neither of these leaders used the Peshitta, and so it must date from after their time, i.e., to the late fourth century or after. Any proper and adequate answer given to this question must begin with the matter of definition of terms. and the Byzantine (majority text), it is suitable to ask, “which one is superior, i.e., which comes closest to presenting the Greek text in its original form?”. What is perhaps the strongest argument in favor of the Westcott-Hort text vis-à-vis the textus receptus, is the fact that it has firm support from the oldest extant Greek manuscripts, plus the earliest of the versions or translations, as well as the early Christian writers of the 2nd through 4th centuries.